The most important part for bugging out it water. Water is important for everyday life and if gone without it for long enough…goodbye. Water gives your body a fluid to dispose sodium (sweat and urine), help keep your mouth wet (saliva) [fun fact your saliva contains opiorphin, a very strong painkiller, but it cannot get through your digestive track], and to help dilute any acids that is thrown up to protect the teeth and muscles in the mouth (also saliva). These are just some of the reasons that water is very important to the body and is necessary to have in a bug out bag.
The rule of 3’s says that you can go three days without water, however that depends on where you are located and how the weather is at the time. The hotter climates, such as deserts and tropical regions, those three days are much shorter. There are many ways to have water on you and how to collect and treat it, but, I will also cover a few ways to make water out of some chemicals/metals.
Ways to hold water
Water can be a tricky thing to hold for some time, but there are many guaranteed ways. One of the most used way for holding water is the water bottle, another is the camel bak. Camel baks hold the water in a bladder in a pack to make carrying good amounts of water, the normal amount is around 3 L, much easier and quieter due to no air being added to the pack to make empty spaces. Another way is to make a container out of natural materials, such as gords, but even though these are found in nature they cannot normally sit over a fire to boil (just heat some rocks up in a fire and stick them in, it’s called stone boiling).
There are many ways to treat water that make it safe to drink. The most known way is to filter it then boil it to kill any pathogen in it (one good idea is to make some tea to also give nutrients). While boiling it is the most known and used method to treat water, it is not alone, another technique is by chemicals. Chemicals such as iodine (I), chlorine (Cl), Florine (F), and etc are useful when wanting clean drinking water. They kill any bacteria/virus in the water, however it does not eliminate stuff like dirt or sand so filtering may be wanted, making it safe to drink. One last way, as I know of, is called osmosis, where water passes though membranes but the pores are too small for any pathogen to get through, which makes it safe to drink.
Creating water through chemistry
Now the fun part, making water through chemistry. An important thing to note is that this should only be tried it 1) you are experienced in chemistry 2) you watch someone do these and test it out little by little (to reduce chances of injury) and/or 3) if you have someone that is experienced. This is to reduce the chance of someone getting injured during these reactions. There are many chemical reactions that produces water, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) which produce sodium chloride (NaCl or table salt) and water. Another reaction is to create hydrogen by combining HCl and certain metals, such as zinc, then burning the hydrogen in a controlled environment creating water. These reactions using an acid and a hydroxide (alkaline) should be distilled afterwards to remove the salts, because when an acid reacts with a base it creates two things… a salt and water. Finally another way to treat water is to use electrolysis then burn the hydrogen. Electrolysis has an electric current flowing through water, which separates into H2 and O2 (H on negative; O on positive) which then needs to burn for it to form liquid H2O. To test chemical reactions I, Oakleaf prepper, recommend getting the BEAKER app and experimenting.